Geology 1403
Oct. 9, 1999


1.  To be a mineral, a substance must meet all of the following criteria EXCEPT it

 a.  must be naturally occurring
 b.  must be an inorganic solid
 c.  must have a crystalline structure
d.  must have a constant chemical composition, or one that varies within set limits
 e.  must contain silica tetrahedra in some internal arrangement

2.  Non-silicate minerals are usually most important for

 a.  fact that they make up most of the moon.
 b.  their volume in making up the Earth's core.
 c.  the fact that they're the most abundant in the Earth's crust.
d.  the fact that they include many valuable metallic mineral ores.
e.  the fact that they are the dominant minerals formed by living things.

3. Which is the most common member of the silicate mineral group?

 a.  feldspars
 b.  carbonates
 c.  native elements
 d.  oxides and hydroxides
 e.   sulfides

4.  What type of volcano is Mt. Pinatubo?

 a. shield
 b. composite
 c. cinder cone
 d. fissure
 e. hydrothermal

 5.  An igneous rock which has the largest crystal sizes

 a.  pegmatite
 b.  granite
 c.  rhyolite
 d.  obsidian
 e.  basalt
 6.  Almost all the active volcanoes in the world are located

 a.  on the margins of lithospheric plates.
 b.  randomly throughout the world.
 c.  at divergent plate margins.
 d.  over "hot spots" or mantle plumes from the molten outer core.
 e.  in the Mediterranean and Caribbean Seas and their margins.

 7. Which would not be deposited in a hydrothermal vein?

 a. copper
 b. gold
 c. silver
 d. platinum
 e. calcite

 8.  Limestones as sedimentary rocks are composed mainly of what mineral?

 a.  potassium feldspar
 b.  quartz
 c.  amphibole
 d.  calcite
 e.  sulfides

 9.  The silica tetrahedra is composed of:

a.  silicon and calcium
b.  silicon and iron
c.  oxygen and silicon
d. carbon and oxygen
e. iron and oxygen

10.  The best explanation why silica tetrahedrons form the basis for
most common mineral groups in the Earth's crust is:

a.  tetrahedrons covalent bonds are strongest
b.  Iron and magnesium make up much of the Earth's  crust
c.  silicon and oxygen are the two most common elements in crustal rocks
 d. silicon and oxygen are the heaviest elements of the crust
e. hydrogen and sodium are the most common elements of the earth's

11. Pahoehoe and aa

a.  are intrusive igneous rocks
b.  are examples of extrusive basaltic lava flows
c.  form under the ocean along mid-ocean ridge systems
d. are the result of pyroclastic eruptions
e. are associated with coral reef development

12. What type of volcano is Kilauea?

a. composite
b. cinder
c. shield
d. viscous dome
e. laccolith

13. Which mineral forms as the result of evaporation of seawater?

 a. malchite
 b. hematite
 c. magnetite
 d. olivine
 e. selenite (gypsum)

14. Which is a sialic (non-ferromagnesium) silicate mineral?

 a. plagioclase feldspar
 b. olivine
 c. amphibole
 d. hematite
 e. bauxite

15. Which does not apply to the ferromagnesium silicates?

 a. basaltic magmas
 b. rich in Mg/Fe
 c. pyroxene
 d. muscovite
 e. form from a melt

16. Which is not associated with the environment of formation of precipitates?

 a. coral reefs
 b. warm, shallow water
 c. clear water
 d. clastic sediments
e. skeletons and secretions from micro-organisms

17. Which will react strongly with hydrochloric acid?

 a. calcite
 b. dolomite
 c. halite
 d. clear quartz
 e. bauxite

18. Which has a rust colored streak?

 a. graphite
 b. pyrite
 c. amphibole
 d. halite
 e. hematite

19. Which is intrusive?

 a. fissure eruption
 b. batholith
 c. microlith
 d. lithification
 e. bedding planes

20. Which mineral is copper ore?

 a. olivine
 b. augite
 c. pyrite
 d. malachite
 e. galena

21. Which would be characterized by a vesicular texture, light, with lots of bubble holes?

 a. scorria
 b. pumice
 c. rhyolite
 d. obsidian
 e. quartzite

22. Which would result in a glassy texture?

 a. the magma cooled slowly deep under the earth
b. an explosive eruption in which the lava was pulverized into tiny particles
c. hot lava flowed from land into water
d. the lava first cooled slowly underground, then erupted into a deep basalt flow on the surface
e. none of the above would produce a glassy texture

23. Which is out of place (not associated with the others)?

 a. Mafic magma
 b. composite volcanoes
 c. extensive lava flows
 d. hot spots, rifting plate boundaries
 e. above 850oC

24. Which is out of place (not associated with the others)?

 a. tendency for pyroclasts
 b. pahoehoe lava flows
 c. temperatures below 850oC
 d. converging plate boundary
 e. low viscosity magmas

25. Where is a good geographic location to find shield volcanoes?

 a. Pacific Coast of Mexico
 b. Arizona
 c. Guatemala
 d. eastern Caribbean
 e. Hawaii

26. The portion of continental United States most likely to have a volcanic
 eruption in the near future is

 a. Pacific Northwest
 b. New England
 c. Southeast - Gulf Coast
 d. Central Appalachains
 e. Great Lakes

27.   Which was the bonding agent for sandstone (sedimentary rock film)?

 a.   silicon
 b.   silica
 c.   quartzite
 d.   calcium carbonate
 e.   chalk

28. Crater Lake, Oregon is an example of a/an

 a. shield volcano
 b. fissure eruption
 c. pillow basaltic eruption
 d. volcano on a rifting plate boundary
 e. volcanic caldera

29. The process that transforms a pile of loose sediment into a sedimentary rock is

 a. crystallization
 b. recrystallization
 c. lithification
 d. evaporation
e.      burial

30. Which mineral crystallizes at the lowest temperature (Bowen's Reaction series)?

 a. olivine
 b. amphibole
 c. quartz
 d. plagioclase feldspar
 e. muscovite mica

Questions #31-34 - complete the table - match the correct term with the appropriate description:

  a. laccolith
  b. batholith
  c. volcanic neck
  d. dike
e. sill

31. ___________ Coarsely crystalline rock, generally granitic composition, largest of intrusive rock bodies
32. ___________ Horizontal, sheet-like intrusion, narrow, tabular body of igneous rock
33. ___________ Remnant of an eroded volcano
34. ___________ Magma has intruded between rock layers and forced them upward into a dome
35. ___________ Vertical, sheet-like intrusion, narrow, tabular body of igneous rock
Question #36-40 - complete the following table.  Match the igneous rock with the correct description:

   a. andesite
   b. peridotite
   c. gabbro
   d. pegmatite
   e. rhyolite

Origin Light Intermediate Dark Ultra-mafic
Intrusive Granite Diorite 37._________ 38._________
Ultra-large crystals 36.__________ XXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXX
Extrusive 39.___________ 40._________ basalt

41. Which rock represents the first stage in the conversion of oceanic
 crust to continental crust?

 a. sandstone
 b. basalt
 c. peridotite
 d. andesite
 e. granite
42. Which is the only major rock type composed of non-silicate minerals?

 a. shale
 b. rhyolite
 c. limestone
 d. sandstone
 e. breccia

43. Which is incorrect concerning sedimentary rocks?

 a. most common rock of the continental crust
 b. associated with hydrologic system
 c. derived from rock debris and/or chemical/organic sediment
 d. fossil bearing rocks
 e. form in horizontal layers

44. In which rock type does cross-bedding occur?

 a. limestone
 b. sandstone
 c. siltstone
 d. shale
 e. bituminous coal

45. Where would one find mud-cracks?

 a. sand dunes
 b. river gravel bars
 c. tidal flats
 d. deep marine
 e. glacial deposits

46. What is a lahar?

 a. pahoehoe lava flow
 b. underwater sand slide
 c. forefront beach dunes
 d. volcanic mud-flow
 e. underwater lava flow

47. Which area would not have extensive coral reefs forming today?

 a. Caribbean coast of Yucatan
 b. Caribbean - Belize, Central America
 c. Gulf coast of extreme southern Florida (Florida Keys)
 d. Pacific Ocean - northeast Australia
 e. Texas Gulf Coast

48. Which is softest on the Mohs scale?

 a. talc
 b. corundum
 c. quartz
 d. calcite
 e. diamond

49.   Which has the highest percentage of carbon?

 a.   raw aluminum
 b.   steel
 c.   crude iron
 d.   liquid nitrogen
 e.   liquid oxygen

50. What type of eruption characterized Mt. Pinatubo?

 a. pahoehoe
 b. phreatic
 c. pyroclastic
 d. aa
 e. hydrothermal

51. A turquoise color in a sedimentary rock indicates the presence of

 a. iron oxide
 b. copper oxide
 c. organic material
 d. olivine
 e/ pyroxene

52.   Which mineral would be least common in basalt?

 a. pyroxene
 b. olivine
 c. peridotite
d. potassium feldspar
e. all are present in high amounts in basalt

53.   Where would andesitic magma form?

 a.   spreading centers (rift zones)
 b.   stable interior of a continent
 c.   transform fault
 d.   converging plate boundary involving continental crust
 e.   converging plate boundary involving two oceanic plates

54.   The May, 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens was characterized by

 a.   extensive outpourings of basaltic lava to form a lava lake
 b.   extensive rhyolite flows
 c.   fissures and underground tunnels of basaltic lava
 d.   formation of several cinder cones
 e.   a lateral pyroclastic flow

55. Which has rhombehedral cleavage?

 a. halite
 b. pyrite
 c. muscovite
 d.       galena
 e. calcite

56. Which mineral has a rectangular crystal shape?

 a. biotite
 b. potassium feldspar
 c. halite
 d. calcite
 e. dolomite

57. A hot, fast moving, glowing cloud of volcanic ash and gas is called a

 a. lahar
 b. pyroclastic flow
 c. fissure eruption
 d. composite flow
 e. basaltic flow

58. Potassium feldspar is the most common mineral in

 a. granite
 b. limestone
 c. basalt
 d. peridotite
 e. andesite

59. The mineral calcite (CaCO3) is the major component of

 a. sandstone
 b. granite
 c. basalt
 d. coal
 e. limestone

60.   Which gas was bubbled through the molten steel to “mix” it?

 a.   hydrogen
 b.   oxygen
 c.   chlorine
 d.   magnesium
 e.   argon

61.   Graded bedding is associated with the ____________environment.

 a. playa lake
 b. beach
 c. fluvial
 d. organic reef
 e. deep marine

62. Which is a fossil-bearing rock?

 a. rock salt
 b. limestone
 c. rhyolite
 d. gypsum
 e. gabbro

63. Non-clastic sedimentary rocks derive from

 a. weathering of other rock types
 b. recrystallization from high temperatures and pressure
 c. chemical and organic deposits
 d. crystallization from a melt
 e. meteor impact

64. What is the most common gas in magma?

 a. sulphur dioxide
 b. hydrogen sulfide
 c. carbon dioxide
 d. carbon monoxide
 e. water

65. Aluminum oxide

 a. hematite
 b. malachite
 c. pyrite
 d. bauxite
 e. calcite

66. What is not correct concerning a volcanic island arc?

 a. andesitic
 b. pyroclastic eruptions
 c. curved chain of volcanic islands
 d. ocean plate convergence
 e. all of the above are associated with volcanic island arcs?

67.   What does mafic indicate?

 a.   iron and nickel
 b.   silicon and oxygen
 c.   manganese and fluorine
 d.   magnesium and nickel
 e.   magnesium and iron

68. Red color in a sandstone indicates the presence of

 a. organic material
 b. aluminum
 c. carbon
 d. iron
 e. nickel

69. Quartzite and marble are examples of

a. deep igneous rocks with very large crystals
b. metamorphism with little or no foliation
c. diagenesis
d. extrusive lava flows
e. magmatic differentiation

70. Where would coal form?

a. beach
b. swamp
c. playa lake
d. organic reef
e. alluvial fan

Identification - foliated metamorphic rocks.  Fill in the missing information:

   a. gneiss
   b. slate
   c. schist

Parent rock Low grade metamorphism-> Intermediate---------------à High grade(most intense)à
Shale (sedim.) 71._________ 72._________ 73. ________ magma

Identification - parent rock and metamorphic counterpart

   a. quartzite
   b. marble
   c. anthracite
   d. greenstone (serpentine)
   e. gneiss

Parent Rock Metamorphic counterpart
basalt 74.  ______________
limestone 75.  ______________
granite 76.  ______________
bituminous coal 77.  ______________
sandstone 78.  ______________


Matching - environment of formation and rock type

   a. alluvial fan
   b. deep marine
   c. fluvial
   d. organic reef
   e. eolian

Rock and sediment type Environment of formation
sand dunes 79.  ____________
conglomerate, rounded pebbles 80.  ____________
turbidity currents, graded bedding 81.  ____________
limestone 82.  ____________
broken, angular pebbles 83.  ____________

84. Which is not involved in the metamorphic process?

 a. temperature range 200-600o C.
 b. chemically active fluids
 c. stress/pressure applied over short period of time
 d. recrystallization of minerals
 e. deformation

85. Where would metamorphic rocks exposed at the surface be most common today?

 a. canyons
 b. beaches
 c. river valleys
 d. active mountain ranges
 e. continental shields

86. Where would metamorphic rocks be forming today?

 a. continental shields
 b. roots of older mountains
 c. converging plate boundaries, alpine chains
 d. stable interior
 e. abyssal floor of ocean

87.   Which is an alloy?

 a.   iron
 b.   steel
 c.   Fe2O3
 d.   Al2O3
 e.   hematite

88. Shield volcanoes would be likely to have

 a. very viscous lava domes
 b. very fluid basalt flows
 c. extensive pyroclasts
 d. large deposits rich in muscovite
 e. zoned crystals containing high percentages of potassium feldspar
89. The Columbia Plateau of the Pacific Northwest was formed by

 a. vertical uplift of the crust
 b. geosynclinal deposition
 c. composite volcanoes
 d. extensive fissure eruptions of basaltic lavas
 e. ash flows

Matching - rock categories.  Match the rock type with the appropriate description:

   a. igneous intrusive
   b. igneous extrusive
   c. sedimentary clastic
   d. sedimentary non-clastic
   e. metamorphic foliated

90. _________________ bits and pieces of other rocks, followed by

91. _________________ subjected to deforming stress, shows banding
     or layering of minerals

92. _________________ crystallized from a magma, phaneritic

93. _________________ lithification from chemical and/or organic

94. _________________  crystallized from a magma, aphanitic


95. The texture exhibited by slate, schist, and gneiss is called

 a. alignment
 b. cleavage
 c. foliation
 d. fracture
 e. stratification

96.   Which material is added to the iron ore to “reduce” it to crude iron?

 a.   magnesium
 b.   helium
 c.   coke
 d.   bauxite
 e.  lead


97.   The process responsible for change in chemical composition of a mineral
         without a change in structure is known as

 a.   polymorphism
 b.   atomic replacement
 c.   molecular substitution
 d.   ionic substitution
 e.   allotropism

 98. A limestone with corals, sponges, and other fossils, little or no stratification, an absence of cross-bedding and ripple marks.  In which environment was this
 limestone formed?

 a. organic reef
 b. deep ocean
 c. beach
 d. delta
 e. tidal flat

 99.   Which describes the 1986-1988 eruptions of Kilauea?

 a.   pyroclastic
 b.   basaltic eruption from single rift zone
 c.   basaltic flows from lava lake and extensive tube system
 d.   ejection of volcanic cinders to form cinder cones
 e.   slow moving viscous rhyolite lava flows

100.   Which large scale ore refining process utilizes electrolysis?

 a.   aluminum
 b.   sulfur
 c.   iron
 d.   mercury
 e. copper