BODY FLUIDS

I.     Seminal Fluid
A. 
 Physiology
           4  fractions: testes, epididymis,  seminal vesicle and the bulbourethral glands
           Spermatozoa – produced in the seminiferous tubule
           Prostate Fluid – high concentration of acid phosphatase, citric acid and enzymes
           responsible for coagulation and liquefaction.
 B.  
 Testing:
            Infertility
            Post – Vasectomy
            Forensic Analysis
            Artificial insemination programs
 C.  
 Collection and Handling:
            Abstinence 3 days
           
 Sterile container
            Room temperature and delivered within one hour
            Record collection and receipt time
            Standard Precautions
 D.    Analysis
        1. Macroscopic:
 Appearance, Volume, Viscosity and pH
        2.
 Microscopic: Count, Motility and Morphology
      
 3. Normal Values:
           
a. Color –              translucent gray white color
           
b. Volume –           2 – 5 ml
            c. Viscosity –        Pours in droplets
            d.  pH –                    7.2 – 8.0
            e. Count –              20 – 160 million/ml
            f. Motility-             >50% within one hour
            g. Morphology -    >30% normal forms (strict)
            h. WBC-                <1.0 million/ml
   E.     Additional Testing:  Sperm Viability, Seminal fluid fructose, Anti-sperm antibodies,
           Microbial testing, Chemical testing, Post vasectomy analysis and  Sperm function
           tests
 
  F.     Quality Control

        II.    Amniotic Fluid:
                        A.    Physiology
                                Present in the amnion, sac surrounding the fetus
                                Fetal maturation
                                Composition like maternal plasma
                                Chemical concentrations
                        B.
   Testing:
                              Suspected chromosomal abnormalities
                       
       Metabolic disorders
                       
       Neural tube defects 
                       
       HDN -Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn
                               Gestational age
                               Infection
                               Fetal maturity
                        C.
  Collection and Handling
                       
      Amniocentesis – needle aspiration
                            
 30 ml of fluid collected (maximum amount)
                              Protect from light – collect in amber-colored tubes
                           
  Must be delivered to laboratory promptly
                            
 Procedures perform immediately
                              Temperature critical
                      
       Filtration or centrifugation important
                           
  Standard precautions should be taken
                        D.
  Analysis:
                              Physical - Color and Appearance
              
               Tests for Fetal distress: Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) and Neural
                              tube defects
                              Tests for fetal maturity: Fetal Lung Maturity, Lecithin – Sphingomyelin ratio,
                              Amniostat –FLM, Foam stability, Microviscosity and
 Lamellar bodies and optical
                              density

III.     Metabolic Disorders
A.
      Overflow versus Renal disorders
B.
      Amino Acid Disorders
1.
       Phenylalanine-Tyrosine Disorders
2.
       Branched-Chain amino acid disorders
3.
       Tryptophan Disorders
4.
       Cystine Disorders
5.       Porphyrin Disorders
6.
       Mucopolysaccharide Disorders
7.
       Purine Disorders
8.
       Carbohydrate Disorders

 

CEREBROSPINAL FLUID

PREPARATION

GROSS APPEARANCE

COLOR

CSF CELL COUNTS

MORPHOLOGIC EXAMINATION

CHEMISTRY TESTS

PROTEINS

GLUCOSE

OTHER CHEMICAL TESTS

MICROBIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION

SEROUS FLUIDS

PLEURAL, PERICARDIAL AND PERITONEAL

FLUIDS CONTAINED WITHIN CLOSED CAVITIES OF THE BODY

TRANSUDATES

EXUDATES

COLLECTION

DESCRIPTION OF SEROUS FLUIDS

PLEURAL FLUID

PERICARDIAL FLUID

PERITONEAL FLUID

EXAMINATION OF SEROUS FLUIDS

GROSS APPEARANCE

CELL COUNTS

 OTHER EXAMINATIONS

SYNOVIAL FLUID